Falalar Azumin Shura

Wannan cikakkrn bayani ne daga ZAUREN FIQHU dangane da Azumin Tasu’ah da Ashurah.
Hakika ranar ashura, rana ce wacce babu irinta acikin ranakun shekara baki daya. Domin kuwa rana ce wacce manyan Muhimman al’amura na tarihi suka faru acikinta.
Rana ce wacce addinin Musulunci ya sunnanta yin azuminta domin koyi da Manzon Allah (saww). Kamar yadda zamu gani acikin hadisai Sahihai masu zuwa in sha Allahu.
Daga Abu Hurairah (ra) yace “An tambayi Manzon Allah (saww) “Shi. wacce Sallah ce tafi falala bayan Sallolin farillah?”. Sai yace “.YIN SALLAH CIKIN TSAKAR DARE”.
Sai aka ce “Wanne Azumi ne yafi falala bayan na Ramadhan?” Sai yace: “WATAN NAN NA ALLAH WANDA KUKE KIRANSA ALMUHARRAM”.
(Muslim da Ahmad da Abu Dawud ne suka ruwaitoshi).
Kunga wannan hadisin ya nuna mana cewa falalar wannan azumin da akeyi acikin Almuharram wato Ashura da Tasu’ah kenan sun zarce falalar yin azumi awani watan in banda Ramadhan.
Daga Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah bn Abi Sufyan (ra) yace “Naji Manzon Allah (saww) yana cewa: “HAKIKA WANNAN ITA CE RANAR ASHURA. DUK DA CEWA BA’A FARLANTA MUKU YIN AZUMINTA BA, NI DAI INA AZUMI. WANDA YAGA DAMA YAYI AZUMI. WANDA KUMA YAGA DAMA YACI ABINCI”.
(Bukhariy da Muslim ne suka ruwaitoshi).
Wannan hadisin yana karantar damu cewa hakika ba’a wajabta mana yin azumin Ashura ba. Sai dai Sunnah ce. Wanda yake da iko yayi. Wanda kuma bai yi ba, to bashi da laifi. Sai dai ya kuskure samun wannan falalar. Domin kuwa akwai Sahihin hadisin da Manzon Allah (saww) yace : “AZUMIN ASHURA YANA KANKARE ZUNUBAN SHEKARA GUDA”.
Wasu mutanen saboda son rai da kuma jahilci suna riya cewar wai an Kirkiro yin azumin Ashura ne domin Qiyayyar Imamul Husaini (rta) alhali kuma ba haka abin yake ba. Domin kuwa an fara yin azumin Ashura tun kafin haihuwar Imamul Husaini din (rta).
Ga hadisi nan daga Nana A’isha (rta) tana cewa: “Ranar Ashura ta zamanto wata rana ce wacce Quraishawa suka kasance suna azumtarta tun alokacin Jahiliyyah.
Kuma Manzon Allah (saww) ya kasance yana azumtarsa. Kuma Sannan bayan yayi hijirah zuwa Madina ma ya azumceshi kuma ya umurci mutane su azumceshi.
Amma yayin da aka Wajabta na Ramadhan sai yace “DUK WANDA YAGA DAMA YA AZUMCESHI (WATO ASHURA) WANDA KUMA YAGA DAMA YA BARSHI”.
(Bukhariy da Muslim ne suka ruwaitoshi).
4. Daga Sayyiduna Abdullahi bn Abbas (ra) yace : “Manzon Allah (saww) yazo Madeena sai ya tarar da Yahudawa suna azumtar ranar Ashurah.
Da ya tambayesu “MENENE WANNAN?”. Sai suka ce “Rana ce mai nagarta wacce Allah ya tseratar da Annabi Musa (as) da Banu Isra’eela daga Makiyinsu (wato Fir’auna). Don haka Annabi Musa (as) yake azumtarta”.
Sai Manzon Allah (saww) yace : “NI NA FIKU CHANCHANTA DA ANNABI MUSA”. Don haka ya azumceshi kuma yayi umurni da Azumtarsa”.
(Bukhary da Muslim ne suka ruwaitoshi).
Wannan hadisin yana karantar damu abubuwa masu yawa.
*Na farko : halaccin yin wata ibadah ta musamman awasu ranaku na musamman domin nuna murna ko farin ciki akan wani abu na Musamman wanda ya ta’ba faruwa a irin wannan ranar.
2. Na biyu : Soyayyar da Manzon Allah (saww) yake yiwa sauran ‘Yan uwansa Annabawa (as).
3. NA UKU : Musulunci ya kan karbi wasu abubuwan daga addinan da suka gabata, Sannan ya gyarashi ya kyautatashi yadda zai yardar da Allah (SWT).
Acikin wani hadisin kuma daga Abu Musal Ash’Ariy (rta) yace : “Ranar Ashura ta zamanto rana ce wacce Yahudawa suke girmamata sun riketa amatsayin Eidi. Don haka Sai Manzon Allah (saww) yace “TO KU AZUMCETA”
(Bukhary da Muslim ne suka ruwaitoshi).
Acikin wannan ruwayar kamar ya nuna cewa ana yin azumin ne don sa’ba ma Yahudawa. Tunda su suna yin Biki ne aranar, shi yasa musulmai kuma suke Azumi domin mu kauce ma koyi dasu.
Acikin wani hadisin kuma Abdullahi ‘dan Abbas (ra) yace “Yayin da Manzon Allah (saww) ya azumci Ashura kuma yayi umurni a azumceshi, Sai (Sahabbai) suka ce “Ai wannan fa rana ce wacce Yahudawa da Nasaara suke girmamata”.
Sai Manzon Allah (saww) yace “IDAN SHEKARA MAI TAZO, IN ALLAH YASO ZAMU AZUMCI RANAR TASU’AH MA”.
Amma shekara bata zagayo ba sai da M anzon Allah (saww) ya koma zuwa ga Allah.
(Muslim da Abu Dawud ne suka ruwaitoshi).
Acikin wata ruwayar daga Imam Ahmad bn Hanbal, Manzon Allah (saww) cewa yayi : “WALLAHI IDAN HAR NA WANZU ZUWA BA’DI, SAI NA AZUMCI RANAR TARA GA WATA MA”.
(Imam Ahmad da Muslim suka ruwaito).
Sayyid Saabiq (Allah yaji Qansa) ya fada acikin littafinsa FIQHUS SUNNAH cewa Malamai sun ce Hakika shi Azumin Ashura martabobi uku ne.
– Martabar farko : Shine mutum ya azumci ranar Tara ga wata, goma ga wata, da kuma Sha-daya ga watan Almuharram.
– Martaba ta biyu : Shine mutum ya azumci ranar tara da kuma goma ga Wata (tasu’a da ashura kenan).
– Martaba ta Uku : Shine mutum ya azumci ranar Goma ga wata kadai (wato Ashurah kenan).
FA’IDAH : Ya halatta mutum yayi azumi ranar Juma’a ko Asabar ko lahadi mutukar dai ranar tazo daidai da ranar wani azumi mai falala. Kamar Ashurah, Tasu’ah, Azumin ranar Arfah, Azumi Uku akowanne wata, etc.
Dukkan Malamai sunyi ittifaki akan halascin yin haka.
FALALAR YALWATA MA IYALI ARANAR ASHURA :
Akwai hadisi daga Jabir bn Abdillahil Ansariy (ra) yace “Manzon Allah (saww) yace : “DUK WANDA YA YALWATA MA KANSA DA IYALANSA ARANAR ASHURA, ALLAH ZAI YALWATA MASA ACIKIN GABA DAYAN SHEKARAR NAN”.
Baihaqiy ya ruwaito hadisin acikin SHU’ABUL EEMAN. Hakanan Ibnu Abdil-Barri ma ya ruwaito.
Hadisin yana da wasu hanyoyin masu yawa wanda aka ruwaitoshi. Sai dai dukkaninsu raunana ne.
Amma Imamus Sakhawiy yace Hanyoyin hadisin suna karfafar Junansu saboda yawaitarsu. Don haka za’a iya yin aiki dashi.
Wannan yalwatawar ta hada da sauyin abinci, abin sha, da sauransu.
Ana so duk wanda yake da iko ya kyautata ma iyalansa awannan ranar ta Ashura.
Mun gabatar da wannan karatun ne a ZAUREN FIQHU WHATSAPP – (2) Kuma ina bama daliban zauren hakurin cewa na gabatar da karatun ne cikin dare sakamakon rashin samun damar yin hakan da rana saboda yawaitar Uzurarruka.

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